Skip to main content

Impact of ASHRAE guidelines for Data Centers?

Data Centers consume 1-1.5 percent of energy today worldwide. It is predicted that by 2030, it will grow up to 3-13%. As energy consumption rises, so do the costs. To prevent unnecessary expenses, proper environmental monitoring best practices should be applied. ASHRAE have developed guidelines for the data center that include strategies for the best practices that reduce energy consumption. The different data industry segments have worked together on energy reduction approaches. These led to practical, technically attainable, and cohesive energy efficiency solutions. It then became the basis for the development of future codes and standards.

The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineer (ASHRAE) Technical Committee 9.9 published in 2008 the “Best Practices for Datacom Facility Energy Efficiency,” which covers all aspects of technology spaces, data centers, and electronic equipment. ASHRAE has since published several books discussing data center energy reduction.

Aside from the challenge of increasing energy efficiency, data centers must deal with several physical and environmental threats:
 
– Temperature
– Humidity
– Water Leaks
– Security
– CRAC or Air Handler Failure

ASHRAE also provides guidelines regarding data center practices that can improve facility efficiency and mitigate external threats.
 
ASHRAE Technical Team Committee(2016) Data Center Power Equipment Thermal Guidelines and Best Practices. Retrieved 01 December 2020 from https://tc0909.ashraetcs.org/documents/ASHRAE_TC0909_Power_White_Paper_22_June_2016_REVISED.pdf

ASHRAE 90.1

The first decade of the 21st century led to a sudden surge in computer usage. Due to the increase in computer use, there was an unexpected demand for data centers. ASHRAE produced five editions of ASHRAE Standard 90.1: Energy Efficiency for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings. However, the publications contained a minimal amount of data center-specific language. Emerging state-of-the-art data centers found it a challenge to meet energy compliance requirements. There were several limitations for data centers and it is more prescriptive-based rather than performance-based. It largely focused on what a company needs to do instead of the criteria they need to meet. The provisions in ASHRAE 90.1 about other building types also apply to data centers. In some instances, it did not showcase the intended operations or design as formulated by the owner and design engineer regarding data center exceptions on outdoor air economizer and the defined HVAC system type. It also introduced some design application ideas that are not practical for a data center, such as requiring an economizer to be included in the overall facility design. 
 
It also contained little information about data centers that are larger than a telecom closet. This was crucial due to the continuous expansion of data centers. An industry collaboration was formed with end-users who implemented internal energy efficiency programs regarding the established ASHRAE guidelines. They contributed essential operational data that played a huge role in the development of the ASHRAE 90.4 standard.
 
ASHRAE 90.1 became widely popular as a basis for ensuring energy compliance for commercial buildings. It was integrated into many jurisdictions as a part of their building codes. In the ASHRAE 90.1-2007 edition, ASHRAE solicited proposals from the public on how to further improve the 90.1 guidelines. The changes would then reflect in the 2010 version. It received a lot of proposals from the public, including a response from the ASHRAE Technical Committee 9.9. The proposal by TC 9.9 advised changes that would enhance technical requirements. They also recommended clear and consistent data center efficiency language. It addressed many modeling and design issues that were in the previous versions. In the release of the 2013 version of ASHRAE 90.1, the recommendations proposed by TC 9.9 committee were published.

Updates in ASHRAE 90.4

Due to limitations in the previous guidelines, the technical committee formulated a new standard that would be more relevant for the data center industry. One of the priorities was to produce a standard where calculations would be based on the relative components of the design rather than the Power Usage Effectiveness (PUE) metric. They intended to develop a standard that does not coincide with the innovations in the data center industry while providing criteria that will lead to further energy savings.
 
The ASHRAE 90.4 Energy Standard for Data Centers is applicable to data centers with a floor area greater than 20 W/ft2 and IT equipment loads greater than 10 kW. It also specifies requirements for electrical and mechanical systems that operate in new data centers or in alterations that require new systems.
 
Chairs of the committees responsible for ASHRAE 90.1, 90.4, and the ASHRAE Standards Committee convened to address any conflicts laid out in the standards. The goal for ASHRAE 90.4 was to define data center energy efficient requirements while using the energy compliance for “non data center” components indicated in ASHRAE 90.1.

ASHRAE 90.4 refers to ASHRAE 90.1 for the following:
 
– Lighting
– Building envelope
– Service water heating
– Mechanical cooling equipment efficiencies
– Other equipment criteria

The 2016 ASHRAE guidelines became more performance-based by declaring the minimum energy efficiency requirements for data centers. It enumerates criteria that data center designers need and explains how to do energy-efficient, compliant calculations. Operation, maintenance, design recommendations are also included in the guidelines.
 
Under the new standard, calculations need to be equal or less than the values indicated for the specific climate zones. It is assumed that the facility will be more energy-efficient if the least-performing elements of each system meet the minimum efficiency or maximum loss indicated.

PUE VS ASHRAE 90.4

The primary metric used by the data center industry is PUE. In 2016 it became an ISO standard. ASHRAE 90.1 is often incorporated in many state or local building codes in the US. However, due to the overtly prescriptive tone of the 90.1 guidelines, the 90.4 Energy Standard for Data Centers was introduced to address this issue.

PUE is not a design metric. It was intended to measure baseline and optimize operating energy efficiency. Still, it was referred to before construction for building designs. It also tends to be used as a reference in colocation contractual SLA performance or energy cost schedules. Meanwhile, ASHRAE 90.4 is mainly used as a design standard applied when submitting approval plans before constructing a data center facility. It also tackles 10% or greater facility capacity upgrades.

In terms of data measurement and energy calculation, the 90.4-2016 is more complicated than the PUE metric. One of the downsides of the PUE metric is that it does not contain a geographic adjustment factor. Since the cooling system energy often stands for a significant percentage of energy usage in a facility, similarly constructed date centers would reflect a different PUE if one had a different geographic location. 

The electrical power chain losses due to cooling system energy efficiency calculation are separated in the 90.4 standard. It indicates the limits and total maximum electrical losses across the power chain from the handoff in the utility, through the distribution system and finally at the cabinet power strips that give energy to the IT Equipment.

The mechanical load component (MLC) or the section about cooling system calculation indicates location as a factor in meeting the cooling system energy compliance. A table with US climate zones is listed in ASHRAE Standard 169 with its own respective Maximum Annualized MLC compliance factor. 

Best practices for data center temperature and humidity monitoring

Data centers need to be operated within a safe temperature zone to remain functional. An overheated server can cause downtime that may lead to thousands of dollars in financial loss, which is why many managers opt to undercool their data centers. However, should data centers be one degree closer to the specified temperature safe zone, they would save around 4% on energy costs.

ASHRAE TC 9.9 should be referred to for the servers’ optimal operating temperatures instead of using PUE levels as the sole metric. ASHRAE advises to include three sensors per rack. To more accurately monitor the surrounding temperature levels, these sensors should be placed at the top, middle, and bottom of the rack. Meanwhile, a sensor at the back of a cabinet would be able to provide significant data in a hot or cold aisle.

To further increase efficiency and prevent downtime, rack cabinet exhaust metrics, internal temperatures, and server temperatures should also be tracked. The recorder readings will help a response engineer better address issues in real-time before they lead to a significant costly outage.

Humidity levels should also be monitored as per ASHRAE guidelines. High humidity can lead to increased levels of condensation and produce electrical shortages and equipment failure. In contrast, when humidity levels are too low, data centers may encounter electrostatic discharge (ESD). To handle these issues, managers should prevent uncontrolled temperature increases that lead to humidity levels that fall out of the specified range. Data center and server room humidity levels should be kept in between 40%-50% relative humidity (rH). This range will help prevent the occurrence of an ESD, reduce the risk of corrosion caused by excessive condensation and overall prolong the life expectancy of IT equipment.

Sources:

https://www.missioncriticalmagazine.com/articles/92169-data-center-pue-vs-ashrae-904

https://www.datacenterknowledge.com/archives/2017/05/15/ashrae-90-4-why-this-data-center-standard-matters

https://www.csemag.com/articles/what-ashrae-90-4-does-for-data-center-energy-efficiency/

https://www.esmagazine.com/articles/100840-ashrae-environmental-monitoring-of-humidity-and-temperature-best-practices

https://searchdatacenter.techtarget.com/tip/Addendum-sets-ASHRAE-904-as-energy-efficiency-standard

Kami memastikan Data Center dan Ruang Server anda bekerja optimal dengan :
  1. Mengukur daya resource yang digunakan (Data Center Infrastructure Management)
  2. Memastikan perkabelan yang baik dan terdata (Cabling Restructure & Documentation)
  3. Memastikan penggunaan Pendingin yang baik
  4. Melakukan pemasangan & perawatan AC PRESISI 
  5. Melakukan pemasangan & perawatan FM 200 / FIREPRO Fire Extinguisher
  6. Menggunakan Environment Monitoring System (EMS) AKCP
  7. Melakukan pemasangan Timer AC Split

Kami membantu melakukan pemasangan :
  1. Kabel Fiber Optic Singlemode / Multimode untuk area pabrik, perkantoran 
  2. Kabel UTP / STP / FTP 
  3. Kabel Sensor 
  4. Kabel Listrik / Eletrical 
  5. Panel Listrik 
  6. Pemasangan Akses Door 
  7. Pemasangan CCTV
Silahkan hubungi Tim kami untuk mendapatkan penawaran Terbaik terkait kebutuhan anda.
HUBUNGI KAMI: dcim@dayaciptamandiri.com

Comments

  1. Remarkable post. I simply came across your blog and desired to say that I have really enjoyed searching your blog posts. Thank you for sharing such blogs. Design Builder Auckland

    ReplyDelete

Post a Comment

Popular posts from this blog

Cara Menghitung Ampere Motor 3 dan 1 Phase dengan Rumus Daya

Sering kali, anda menjumpai motor listrik untuk menggerakan mesin pada pabrik - pabrik sekarang dan kebanyakan 85% didalam pabrik menggunakan motor listrik untuk menggerakan mesinnya. motor listrik ada 2 jenis Phase yang pertama adalah 3 phase yang di mana ada tegangan R S T sedangkan yang ke dua adalah 1 Phase dimana motor listrik hanya diberi tegangan phase dan Netral aja, contohnya seperti pumpa air dirumah.     Dari motor - motor tersebut maka anda sangat perlu untuk menghitung amperenya dimana anda membeli motor 1 phase tapi kapasitas rumah anda hanya 450 Watt saja maka anda harus menghitung motor airnya harus di bawah dari 450 Watt. Plate Motor 1 Phase  Diatas adalah name plate motor 1 phase dimana   sudah di ketahui KW dan Amperenya jika hanya di   ketahui KWnya saja bagaimana seperti berikut   menghitungya:  Diket : P : 8 KW = 8 x 1000 = 8000 Watt V : 220V Ditanya : Berapa Nilai Amperenya? Rumus daya  Motor 1 Phase: P = V x I I  = P/V Keterangan : P  : Daya ( Watt ) I   : Arus

Cara Menghitung Satuan Volt, Ampere, dan Watt

Sangat penting untuk mengetahui satuan dalam bidang yang ingin anda pahami, dalam bidang listrik untuk mengetahui satuan seperti volt, ampere, dan watt. Ketika anda tidak mengetahui satuan dari bidang listrik ini sama saja dengan tidak tahu dalam teori dasar dan anda sekarang bisa memperlajari dengan jelas dalam artikel saya berikan ini. Saya akan memberikan langkah demi langkah agar mudah untuk dipahami. Pengertian Volt (Voltage) Volt (Voltage) adalah standart satuan listrik yang menunjukan atau menerangkan sebuah nilai tegangan dalam listrik. Volt atau bisa disebut tegangan hanya bisa diukur dengan alat yang bernama voltmeter atau multitester, volt mempunyai bermacam-macam nilai tegangan dan juga tipe atau karekter yang berbeda. Volt Mempunyai 2 tipe atau karakter Volt atau tegangan listrik ini mempunyai jenis 2 tipe yaitu tegangan AC atau bisa disebut tegangan bolak-balik. kemudian tegangan DC (Direct Current) atau bisa disebut dengan tegangan searah. Untuk mengatahui apa itu tegan

Alat - Alat Fiber Optic dan Fungsinya

1. Fusion Splicer Fusion splicer atau sering dikenal sebagai alat untuk menyambungkan serat optik ini merupakan salah satu alat yang digunakan untuk menyambungkan sebuah core serat optik, dimana serat tersebut terbuat / berbasis kaca, dan mengimplementasikan suatu daya listrik yang telah dirubah menjadi sebuah media sinar berbentuk laser. Sinar laser tersebut berfungsi untuk memanasi kaca yang terputus pada core sehingga bisa tersambung kembali dengan baik. Perlu kalian ketahui, bahwa fusion splicer ini haruslah memiliki tingkat keakuratan yang cukup tinggi, hal ini ditujukan untuk menghasilkan hasil penyambungan yang sempurna, karena pada saat penyambungan tersebut akan terjadi proses pengelasan media kaca serta peleburan kaca yang akan menghasilkan suatu media, dimana media tersebut akan tersambung dengan utuh tanpa adanya celah-celah, hal ini dikarenakan media tersebut memiliki senyawa yang sama. 2. Stripper Atau Miller Sama seperti kabel - kabel yang lain, salah satunya seperti kab

Cara Menentukan Ukuran Kabel Instalasi Listrik

Dalam sebuah instalasi listrik di sebuah rumah atau bangunan, penggunaan kabel listrik haruslah diperhatikan betul. Mengingat kesalahan penggunaan dan pemasangan kabel dapat membahayakan manusia atau penghuni rumah. Dalam menggunakan sebuah kabel ini dari anda harus tahu jenis kabel yang akan di pasang, berapa ukuran kabel listrik, luas penampang maupun panjang kabel listrik. Ukuran Kabel Listrik Seperti yang kita ketahui bersama bahwa fungsi sebuah kabel listrik adalah untuk menghantarkan arus listrik dari sumber listrik menuju beban daya suatu alat listrik. Yang dimaksud dengan ukuran kabel lisrik adalah luas penampang kabel . Sehingga setiap ukuran kabel listrik akan menggunakan satuan mm2 . Mengapa menggunakan ukuran kabel yang tepat sangat penting ? karena kesalahan dalam penentuan ukuran kabel dapat menyebabkan resiko yang fatal. Beberapa kode yang sering ditemukan pada sebuah kabel listrik yaitu : 1 X   1,5 mm 1 X   2,5 mm 2 X   1,5 mm 2 X   2,5 mm Keterangan : Angka sebelum kal

Fungsi dan Cara Setting MCCB ( Moulded Case Circuit Breaker )

Mengulas lebih dalam tentang MCCB - dunia listrik sangat banyak sekali peralatan listrik sebagai pengaman untuk keselamatan dari bahaya listrik maupun untuk mengamankan sebuah motor dan peralatan listrik lainya dari bahaya short circuit. Apa itu MCCB ? MCCB adalah singkatan dari Moulded Case Circuit Breaker, sebagai pengaman terjadinya hubung singkat short circuit dan beban lebih overload agar tidak terjadinya kerusakan pada motor listrik maupun kebakaran yang disebabkan oleh short circuit yang selalu menimbulkan bunga api. MCCB biasanya digunakan oleh industri karena MCCB hanya untuk pengaman listrik 3 phase, dan motor listrik industri juga menggunakan listrik 3 phase, jadi jika anda ingin bertemu apa itu namanya mccb dan dan digunakan untuk apa mampir deh pabrik terdekat dan minta tolong untuk dilihatkan apa itu mccb. Pole MCCB Mccb memiliki macam – macam pole: 1 Pole, 2 Pole, 3 Pole, 4 Pole Mccb memiliki macam – macam kA: 36kA, 50kA, 85kA, 100kA Karakter MCCB - Hanya menggunakan 3 p

Perbedaan Antara KW, KVA, KWH, KVAr

Apa definisi KVA, KW, Watt, KWH, KVar, dan apa perbedaannya? Mungkin kita pernah menjumpai satuan listrik yang terkadang ditulis dengan menggunakan Watt, KW, atau KVA, Dan ini sering menjadi pertanyaan bagi kita, apa sebenarnya perbedaan satuan KW dan KVA, dan berapa 1 kVA, atau mungkin berapa itu 1 KVA KW? Selain itu kita juga sering mendengar istilah KWH, maka pertanyaannya, 1 KWH berapa Watt, atau 1 Kw berapa KWH? Untuk menjawab pertanyaan tersebut, berikut penjelasan mengenai apa yang dimaksud dengan KVA, KW, Watt, KWH, Kvar, dan apa perbedaannya. Apa yang dimaksud dengan KVA, KW, KVAr, dan KWH? Dalam listrik tiga fasa, terdapat 3 jenis daya listrik yang disebut juga dengan segitiga daya, yaitu: Daya Semu (KVA) Daya Aktif (KW) Daya Reaktif (KVAr) KVA KVA (Kilo Volt Ampere) untuk daya listrik yang tidak terlalu besar biasanya cukup menggunakan satuan daya VA (Volt Ampere). 1 KVA = 1000VA KVA adalah satuan daya listrik yang diperoleh dari perhitungan rumus daya, atau biasa disebut de

10 Virtual appliances yang memudahkan pekerjaan Anda.

10 virtual appliances that can simplify your job By  Jack Wallen September 27, 2012, 10:43 AM PDT Takeaway:  If you’ve never worked with virtual appliances, you owe it to yourself to check them out. Here are 10 good ones that will give you an idea of what they can do for you. When you need to quickly deploy a server or test a server-based application, one of the best means of doing so is by using a virtual appliance. A virtual appliance is essentially a prebuilt virtual machine of a configured server that offers any number of features or services. There are virtual appliances for ERP, CRM, file serving, groupware, and just about every type of server you can think of. You can download complete operating systems or powerful services built on top of full-blown server OSes. I have rounded up 10 of my favorite turnkey solutions, which you can download and load up into your favorite virtual machine host to deploy or test. Since there are hundreds upon hundreds of these types o

MENGENAL PANEL LISTRIK , JENIS DAN SPESIFIKASINYA

Pengertian Panel Listrik Panel listrik adalah suatu benda berbentuk kubus dengan berbagai ukuran ataupun bervariasi dengan sebelah sisi dibuat lubang selebar hampir sama dengan belakangnya, dan nantinya di baut penutup seperti daun pintu agar bisa dibuka dan ditutup, dan didalam panel tersebut terdapat papan yang dikaitkan dengan sisi belakang pintu di pakai baut yang nantinya papan tersebut dapat dilepas dan dipasang kembali. Pada umumnya panel listrik adalah terbuat dari plat besi dengan ketebalan 0,5 – 1 mm. Biasanya disesuaikan dengan ukuran atau besarnya panel, dan nantinya papan tersebut yang akan digunakan tempat pemasangan komponen-komponen listrik. Fungsi Panel Listrik Fungsi dari panel listrik adalah untuk menempatkan komponen listrik sebagai pendukung dari mesin-mesin listrik agar bisa beroperasi  sesuai dengan prinsip kerja dari mesin listrik itu sendiri. Untuk mengamankan komponen listrik supaya terlindungi dari pengaruh di sekelilingnya. Untuk menata komponen atau rangkai

Semakin banyak SME yang menggunakan PRTG

Enterprise Management Associates (EMA) is an analyst firm with a strong focus on IT and data management. In his new report "Network Management Megatrends 2016" EMA's infrastructure management specialist Shamus McGillicuddy analyzes the influence of current technologies such as Internet of Things or Hybrid Cloud on today's network management, based on a survey with IT professionals from 150 enterprises. Since most of our customers are SME we asked McGillicuddy to create a white paper based on his report, with a special focus on the special requirements of small and midsize enterprises. Executive Summary Network managers at small and medium enterprises face many of the same challenges that their counterparts at large enterprises face, plus a few of their own. For instance, networking professionals at smaller companies often operate enterprise-grade technologies with fewer resources and smaller budgets. Therefore, these individuals need network

Jenis Kabel Listrik beserta Fungsi dan Gambarnya

Berbicara mengenai kabel listrik tentu sangat luas sekali. Kabel listrik sendiri merupakan komponen yang memiliki peran vital dalam berbagai peralatan elektronik yang kita gunakan sehari-hari. Dari kegunaannya, jenis-jenis kabel listrik ini sangat banyak dan beragam. Pemakaian jenis kabel pun harus tepat agar tidak menyebabkan konsleting listrik. Untuk itu penting sekali mengetahui jenis jenis kabel listrik berikut ini. Kabel listrik Kabel listrik merupakan sebuah komponen konduktor yang berfungsi untuk menghantarkan arus listrik ke benda-benda atau peralatan yang membutuhkan energi listrik agar dapat bekerja. Meskipun jenis-jenis kabel listrik sangat banyak, tetapi pada umumnya setiap kabel listrik terdiri dari dua bagian utama, yakni bagian isolator dan bagian konduktor. Bagian-bagian Kabel Listrik Pada kabel listrik, bahan isolator merupakan bahan yang tidak dapat menghantarkan arus listrik. Pada isolator terdiri dari pembungkus kabel yang memiliki fungsi sebagai pelindung (agar tid