Sunday, October 6, 2013

Tentukan tahapan efisiensi data center Anda





Defining the state of the data center
There are two critical concepts to keep in mind when evaluating the state of data center efficiency and alignment with the needs of the business. First, there is no single “magic bullet” indicator of movement from one efficiency stage to the next. The data center environment is a compilation of servers, storage, network systems, mechanical/electrical systems, applications and tools, governance procedures and staff. The only effective means to measure the efficiency of data center operations is to take a holistic approach that considers multiple measures across all elements. Second, the evolution of the data center is a journey, one in which the destination may change as the business needs change. This framework should therefore not be considered a recipe that should be followed blindly, but rather a playbook that should be flexibly applied based on the individual needs of the organization.
Emerging from the survey responses were four distinctive stages that differentiate data centers from one another as IT organizations move toward business alignment (Figure 2). Each stage characterizes the data center based on a combination of efficiency, availability and flexibility.

Basic: The environment is relatively stable and is maintained based on short-term objectives, with standalone infrastructure as the norm. Companies gain the advantages of server consolidation but have not implemented tools
to improve availability levels, which vary widely from application to application and site to site.


Consolidated: Server virtualization and site consolidation are used to take out sizeable numbers of systems and facilities and thereby lower capital costs. Server and storage technologies are well utilized and the possibilities for improving availability through virtual machine (VM) mobility are beginning to be realized.

Available: IT infrastructure is treated as a general resource “pool” that can be allocated and scaled freely to meet the changing demands of workloads and to ensure uptime and performance while providing high rates of utilization. The focus is on measuring and improving service levels while building out governance procedures that capture
business requirements.

Strategic: Widespread adoption of policy-based
automation tools lowers the manual complexity of the data center and ensures availability requirements and dynamic movement of applications and data. Instrumentation and metrics are consistently used to validate compliance with governance polices. 

Tier dalam data center / ruang server



Data center tiers[edit]

The Telecommunications Industry Association is a trade association accredited by ANSI (American National Standards Institute). In 2005 it published ANSI/TIA-942, Telecommunications Infrastructure Standard for Data Centers, which defined four levels (called tiers) of data centers in a thorough, quantifiable manner. TIA-942 was amended in 2008 and again in 2010. TIA-942:Data Center Standards Overview describes the requirements for the data center infrastructure. The simplest is a Tier 1 data center, which is basically aserver room, following basic guidelines for the installation of computer systems. The most stringent level is a Tier 4 data center, which is designed to host mission critical computer systems, with fully redundant subsystems and compartmentalized security zones controlled bybiometric access controls methods. Another consideration is the placement of the data center in a subterranean context, for data security as well as environmental considerations such as cooling requirements.[16]
The German Datacenter star audit program uses an auditing process to certify 5 levels of "gratification" that affect Data Center criticality.
Independent from the ANSI/TIA-942 standard, the Uptime Institute, a think tank and professional-services organization based in Santa FeNew Mexico, has defined its own four levels. The levels describe the availability of data from the hardware at a location. The higher the tier, the greater the availability. The levels are: [17] [18]
Tier LevelRequirements
1
  • Single non-redundant distribution path serving the IT equipment
  • Non-redundant capacity components
  • Basic site infrastructure with expected availability of 99.671%
2
  • Meets or exceeds all Tier 1 requirements
  • Redundant site infrastructure capacity components with expected availability of 99.741%
3
  • Meets or exceeds all Tier 1 and Tier 2 requirements
  • Multiple independent distribution paths serving the IT equipment
  • All IT equipment must be dual-powered and fully compatible with the topology of a site's architecture
  • Concurrently maintainable site infrastructure with expected availability of 99.982%
4
  • Meets or exceeds all Tier 1, Tier 2 and Tier 3 requirements
  • All cooling equipment is independently dual-powered, including chillers and heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems
  • Fault-tolerant site infrastructure with electrical power storage and distribution facilities with expected availability of 99.995%
The difference between 99.671%, 99.741%, 99.982%, and 99.995%, while seemingly nominal, could be significant depending on the application.
Whilst no down-time is ideal, the tier system allows the below durations for services to be unavailable within one year (525,600 minutes):
  • Tier 1 (99.671%) status would allow 1729.224 minutes
  • Tier 2 (99.741%) status would allow 1361.304 minutes
  • Tier 3 (99.982%) status would allow 94.608 minutes
  • Tier 4 (99.995%) status would allow 26.28 minutes

Membangun ruang server


Sumber: http://alatashusein.wordpress.com/2011/10/25/membangun-ruang-server-server-room/


Membangun Ruang Server (Server Room)

Server RoomServer Room
Sesuai dengan namanya server room adalah sebuah ruangan yang digunakan untuk menyimpan server (aplikasi dan database), perangkat jaringan (router, hub dll)  dan perangkat lainnya yang terkait dengan operasional sistem sehari-hari seperti UPS, AC dan lain-lain. Sebuah ruang server harus memiliki standar kemanan yang melindungi kerja perangkat-perangkat di dalamnya dari mulai suhu udara, kelembaban, kebakaran dan akses masuk dari orang-orang yang tidak berkepentingan.
Ruang server adalah aset bagi sebuah perusahaan karena di dalam ruangan ini terdapat aplikasi dan database pelanggan yang semakin hari akan semakin bernilai bagi perusahaan, oleh karena itu ruangan ini harus selalu dalam kondisi yang baik.
Jenis Ruang Server
Ukuran dan jumlah perangkat dalam sebuah ruang server sangat bervariatif mulai dari yang kecil, sedang maupun besar, hal ini sangat tergantung dari jenis usaha perusahaan. Sebagai contoh sebuah usaha rumah makan tidak memerlukan ruang server yang besar karena untuk rumah makan besar sekalipun aplikasi dan data yang disimpan dalam server hanya sebatas transaksi penjualan tanpa perlu menyimpan data pelanggannya, beda sekali dengan usaha perbankan atau jasa keuangan yang harus menyimpan dengan lengkap data dan transaksi yang terjadi pada setiap pelanggannya.
Ruang server sangat bervariasi baik dari segi dimensi maupun kelengkapan pengamanan yang disesuaikan dengan kebutuhan perusahaan dalam mengamankan asset database dan aplikasi yang dimiliki dan tergantung dari bisnis yang dijalankan (Bank, Lembaga Keuangan, Retail Market, Manufacture dll.). Selain dari jenis usaha/bisnis yang dilakukan, ruang server juga sangat tergantung dari proses bisnis yang dijalankan apakah harus 24 jam aktif atau tidak.
Hal-hal yang perlu diperhatikan dalam membangun ruang server
  • Lantai ruang server harus menggunakan raised floor yang tahan api (dengan ketinggian tertentu) yang berfungsi untuk menyalurkan udara dingin dari bawah, selain itu dapat dibawah raised floor dapat digunakan untuk mendistribusikan kabel power dan network.
  • Pintu masuk harus menggunakan pengamanan yang cukup dan sebaiknya menggunakan finger scan agar dapat melakukan review berkala siapa saja yang masuk ke dalam ruangan.
  • Jalan keluar menuju pintu masuk ruangan harus dibuat dengan kemiringan tertentu yang dapat digunakan untuk memasukan server dan perangkat lainnya dengan mudah dan aman.
  • Sistem pendingin sebaiknya menggunakan standing AC dengan blower yang berada di bagian bawah/lantai sehingga suhu dingin dapat disalurkan melalui raised floor.
  • Sistem pendingin lainnya adalah dengan menggunakan AC split seperti pada umumnya.
  • Sistem pendingin baik dengan standing AC maupun AC split harus mendapatkan backup unit yang selalu siap apabila dalam kondisi tertentu dibutuhkan.
  • Indikator suhu dan kelembaban harus dapat dilihat dari luar sehingga dapat diketahui dengan pasti kondisi ruangan di dalam.
  • Fire alarm system (Sistem deteksi kebakaran) harus terdapat dalam ruangan dengan menggunakan gas tabung pemadam yang tidak merusak server apabila bekerja (FM200 atau sejenisnya).
  • Terdapat media backup untuk melakukan backup baik harian, bulanan atau tahunan
Keamanan Ruang Server
Ruang server harus dijaga keamanannya dengan menggunakan perangkat-perangkat keamanan seperti akses ke dalam ruangan dengan menggunakan kunci yang dapat mendeteksi siapa yang masuk/keluar, untuk ini dapat menggunakan finger scan device yang terhubung langsung ke dalam anak kunci pintu. Kamera cctv juga harus terpasang di dalam dan di luar ruangan untuk memastikan jika terjadi sesuatu.  Apabila masih dipandang tidak perlu untuk memasang perangkat-perangkat tersebut maka dapat dibuatkan log book (buku pencatatan) yang didalamnya tercatat siapa saja yang masuk dan keluar, waktu dan tanggal, keperluannya masuk ruang server dan ditandatangani oleh orang yang bertanggungjawab atas ruang server. Selain itu harus dipastikan ada karyawan yang menemani siapapun yang masuk ke ruang server sampai selesai.

Layout dan Desain Personal DataCenter ( Server Room )

Sumber: http://thinkxfree.wordpress.com/2012/04/26/layout-dan-desain-personal-datacenter-server-room/



Penulis Artikel : Nathan Gusti Ryan
Berikut ini saya sharing Layout dan Desain Personal DataCenter ( Server Room ), semoga bermanfaat bagi rekan-rekan yang akan membangun Data Center Personal di perusahaan masing-masing. Desain Personal DataCenter ( Server Room ) ini mengacu pada Standar ANSI/BICSI-002-2011. Desain ini adalah sekedar contoh saja yang kebetulan memang merupakan salah satu project yang saya kerjakan di bulan April 2012 ini. Setidaknyasharing saya ini bisa menjadi inspirasi untuk di kembangkan lagi sesuai kebutuhan masing-masing…
ANSI/BICSI-002-2011 adalah Standar Desain dan Best Practices Implementasi Data Center.Dan artikel ini untuk melengkapi artikel yang telah saya buat sebelumnya :

Ruang Lingkup ANSI/BICSI-002-2011 :
• Penerapan terbaik dan penerapan metode standart.
• Melengkapi standar DataCenter yang lain. Seperti :
- TIA
- CENELEC
- ISO / IEC
- AS / NZS
• Tujuan utama dari ANSI/BICSI-002-2011 adalah sebagai standarisasi persyaratan installasi Data Center dan sebagai panduan / pedoman implementasi desain DataCenter tersebut.
• Penggunaan Standar ANSI/BICSI-002-2011 adalah sebagai pendamping atau sinergi dalam hubungannya dengan standar infrastruktur telekomunikasi yang sudah ada. Seperti :
- ANSI/TIA-942
- AS / NZS 2834-1995 Komputer Akomodasi
- CENELEC EN 50173 Seri
- CENELEC EN 50174 Seri
- ISO / IEC 24764…
Yang mana standarisasi diatas dipergunakan untuk merancang jalur telekomunikasi, space ruangan dan sistem pengkabelan untuk DataCenter.
Kategori / Kriteria ANSI/BICSI-002-2011 :
• Mandatory alias syarat wajib, yaitu : kriteria yang umumnya berlaku untuk perlindungan, administrasi kinerja dan kompatibilitas, yang menentukan persyaratan mutlak minimum yang dapat diterima.
• Advisory alias syarat yang sebaiknya di penuhi, yaitu : kriteria yang diinginkan untuk disediakan ketika pencapaian mereka akan meningkatkan kinerja umum dari infrastruktur data center di semua aplikasi yang dimaksudkan.
Beberapa Komponen yang sangat penting dalam membangun DataCenter adalah :
1. Perencanaan DataCenter.
2. Pemilihan Lokasi DataCenter.
3. Arsitektur / Desain DataCenter.
4. Struktural Hardware DataCenter.
5. Sistem Kelistrikan.
6. Sistem Mechanical.
7. Pengaturan Suhu dan AirFlow.
8. Proteksi Kebakaran.
9. Sistem Pengkabelan / Cabling System.
10. Security.
11. Building Otomatisasi dan Redundancy.
12. Telekomunikasi.
13. Teknologi Informasi.
14. Commissioning.
15. Pemeliharaan / Maintenance Data Center.
Jenis Klasifikasi “Reliability and Availability DataCenter” ( Keandalan dan Ketersediaan DataCenter ) :
Kelas F0 : Jalur Tunggal  atau Single Path DataCenter tanpa salah satu dari berikut ini : power source / sumber daya alternatif; UPS; Grounding perangkat IT yang tepat.
Kelas F1 : Jalur Tunggal atau Single Path DataCenter.
Kelas F2 : Jalur Tunggal atau Single Path Data Center dengan Komponen Redundant.
Kelas F3 : Fasilitas / Resource DataCenter yang bisa di Maintainance bersamaan dan bisa di Operasionalkan secara bersamaan.
Kelas F4 : Fault Tolerant DataCenter atau DataCenter yang terdiri dari beberapa lokasi yang bisa saling mengantikan ( Fault Tolerant ).
Ketersediaan / Availability Catu Daya atau Sistem Listrik :
(1)-Kelas F0 Sasaran Availability : <99,0%
# Penjelasan Class F0 :
Mendukung persyaratan lingkungan dan energi dasar dari fungsi TI tanpa peralatan tambahan. Modal penghindaran biaya adalah pendorong utama. Ada risiko tinggi karena terencana dan tidak terencana downtime.
# Teknis untuk Class F0 :
Komponen redundansi: 0
Sistem redundansi: 0
Kontrol kualitas: Standar
Survivabilitas: 0
peristiwa. Tidak ada pembangkit cadangan.
(2)-Kelas F1 Sasaran Availability : <99,0%
# Penjelasan Class F1 :
Mendukung persyaratan lingkungan dan energi dasar dari fungsi perangkat IT. Ada risiko tinggi downtime karena kegiatan yang direncanakan dan tidak direncanakan. Namun, dalam fasilitas Kelas F1, pemeliharaan dapat dilakukan selama jam di luar acara, dan dampak downtime relatif rendah.
# Teknis untuk Class F1 :
Komponen redundansi: 0
Sistem redundansi: 0
Kontrol kualitas: Standar
Survivabilitas: 0
(3)-Kelas F2 Sasaran Availability : <99,9%
# Penjelasan Class F2 :
Memberikan tingkat keandalan yang lebih tinggi dari itu didefinisikan di F1 Kelas untuk mengurangi resiko downtime karena kegagalan komponen. Dalam fasilitas F2 Kelas, ada risiko moderat downtime karena untuk kegiatan yang direncanakan dan tidak direncanakan. Kegiatan pemeliharaan biasanya dapat dilakukan selama waktu terjadwal.
# Teknis untuk Class F2 :
Redundansi komponen: YA
(Untuk komponen kritis)
Sistem redundansi: 0
Quality control: Premium
Survivabilitas: Moderat
(4)-Kelas F3 Sasaran Availability : <99,99%
# Penjelasan Class F3 :
Memberikan keandalan tambahan dan pemeliharaan untuk mengurangi resiko downtime karena bencana alam, manusia berbasis bencana, pemeliharaan terencana, dan kegiatan perbaikan. Pemeliharaan dan kegiatan perbaikan biasanya akan perlu dilakukan selama waktu produksi penuh tanpa ada kesempatan untuk operasi dibatasi.
# Teknis untuk Class F3 :
Redundansi komponen: YA
(Untuk kritis / noncritical komponen)
Sistem redundansi: Kemungkinan
Quality control: Premium
Survivabilitas: Signifikan
(5)-Kelas F4 Sasaran Availability : <99,999%
# Penjelasan Class F4 :
Menghilangkan downtime melalui penerapan semua taktik untuk menyediakan operasi yang terus menerus terlepas dari kegiatan yang direncanakan atau tidak direncanakan. Semua tunggal poin dikenali kegagalan dari titik koneksi pada utilitas untuk titik koneksi pada beban kritis dieliminasi. Sistem biasanya otomatis untuk mengurangi kemungkinan kesalahan manusia dan staff 24×7. Latihan keras disediakan untuk staf untuk menangani darurat apapun. Kompartementalisasi dan toleransi kesalahan adalah persyaratan utama untuk sebuah fasilitas F4 Kelas.
# Teknis untuk Class F4 :
- Komponen redundansi: YA
(Untuk kritis / noncritical komponen)
- Sistem redundansi: YA
(Termasuk redundansi komponen)
- Kualitas kontrol: Premium
- Survivability: tingkat tertinggi
Penetapan RANGE SUHU untuk ruang server itu tergantung kebijakan atau POLICY masing-masing. Kita harus mengacu pada mesin ( server ) yang kita gunakan, sebab masing-masing server / tiap brand ada perbedaan. Baca Spek Teknis / datasheet dari server yang kita punya. Kalo di tempat saya, mengunakan server IBM Power 7 ini range suhu yang di tentukan oleh IBM adalah suhu antara 5 derajat Celcius hingga 35 derajat Celcius. Policy di perusahaan saya Range Suhu ruang server yang ACCEPTABLE adalah antara suhu 16 derajat Celcius hingga 24 derajat Celcius ( Humidity atau kelembaban antara 30% – 90% ).
Jika suhu ruang server mencapai 24 derajat Celcius maka alarm akan menyala, selanjutnya petugas di tempat segera ambil tindakan. Alarm ini di Trigger oleh Sensor Alarm dengan detektor suhu Otomatis. Pada saat alarm ini menyala, masih ada waktu bagi Administrator atau Server Operator untuk segera Action ONSITE DataCenter sekitar 30 menit – 60 menit sebelum suhu mencapai 30 derajat Celcius. Jadi… pada kondisi suhu ini, server harus segera di matikan atau sudah ada analisa penyebab suhu naik tersebut. Dan sudah ada Action, apakah AC kebali beroperasi dengan NORMAL ataukah ada PROBLEM. Jadi… pastikan server kita sudahSHUTDOWN sebelum mencapai suhu 35 derajat Celcius, sebab pada suhu ruangan 35 derajat Celcius ini server sudah mengeluarkan RED ALERT dan bisa saja suhu Processor server sudah mencapai 90 derajat Celcius…
Penentuan ketersediaan Redundancy juga sangat penting, seperti peralatan untuk : ‘Precision Air Conditioning’, ‘GenSet Backup Power’ yang sudah UP dalam 3 detik jika catu daya utama / PLN mati, ‘System RAID’ pada harddisk Server maupun Storage / SAN / NAS, penerapan ‘Clustering Server’ maupun ‘Mirroring Server’, dll…
=====

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

Mengenai pembuatan Private DataCenter, sama seperti membeli Server. Saya sedikit refresh kembali tentang bagaimana menyakinkan management dalam memilih server, saya analogi-kan dengan Cara memilih kendaraan pengangkut pasir…
Kita bisa saja mengunakan Mobil Bak atau Mobil Pick Up untuk mengakut pasir tersebut, namun alangkah lebih baik mengunakan Dump Truck karena kapasitas dan kekuatannya serta ketahanannya jelas beda. Begitu juga dengan server, bisa saja mengunakan PC Rakitan alias PC Jangkrik sebagai server. Tetapi apakah data kita pada PC Server tersebut sudah terproteksi dengan aman? Adakah Controller RAID pada harddisk-nya? Adakah Redundant Power Supply-nya? Dll, dll…
Selanjutnya… Apakah kita memilih Mobil pick up atau dump truck jika kita akan mengangkut uang atau emas? Bagaimana dengan keamanannya? Tentunya kita akan memilih untuk mengunakan Mobil khusus anti peluru dengan pengawal bersenjata lengkap bukan? Walaupun bisa saja kita gunakan Mobil pick up, tapi tidak mungkin kita akan mengunakan-nya untuk mengirim uang atau emas?
So… Disini saya ngomong mengenai Data Quality… Sebagai contoh, coba kita bayangkan berapa NILAI transaksi toko retail seperti Alfamart / Indomart? Per-transaksi antara Rp.5.000 – Rp.500.000,-. Sedangkan di corporate saya, NILAI transaksi sebuah kontrak penjualan senilai ratusan juta hingga Milyaran rupiah. Makanya butuh IBM Power Server ( Unix Machine ) untuk SAP Server yg di bangun secara Cluster System untuk High Availability-nya serta di Replikasi lagi untuk LOCAL DRC…
Jadi… Mengenai pemilihan server Dan juga visi untuk membangun Personal DataCenter, kembali kepada kita dalam menyiapkan Strategi untuk menjaga System dan konten di dalamnya berupa Data serta Aplikasinya… Apakah butuh Datacenter juga untuk Low End Server? Jawabnya adalah SANGAT DIBUTUHKAN.
# Untuk apa?
Sebuah server itu membutuhkan suhu yang sesuai ( 10 derajat – 35 derajat Celcius, tergantung type / brand servernya ), listrik yg stabil, pemadam kebakaran yang sesuai & memadai, proteksi DRC yang tepat, dll…
# Butuh anggaran berapa untuk sebuah Private DataCenter?
Tergantung pada ukuran Private Datacenter yg akan kita bangun Dan proteksi apa saja yg ingin kita sediakan.
=====
“Semakin tinggi High Availability Server System yang diinginkan maka semakin banyak Point Proteksi yang harus dilakukan berarti juga semakin besar biaya yang harus dikeluarkan”

Berapakah suhu normal dalam ruang server ?

Sumber: http://www.tambelanblog.com/2009/10/berapakah-standar-suhu-normal-didalam.html

Berapakah standar suhu normal didalam ruang server, suhu minimum atau maximum?


Berapa standar suhu normal didalam ruang server

Kehandalan server tidak hanya terletak pada kecanggihan teknologi server yang digunakan namun juga dipengaruhi oleh faktor external server itu sendiri, yakni faktor suhu didalam ruangan serta kelembaban ruangan di dalam ruangan server. lebih jauh lagi bila keperluan server terus bertambah sementara luas ruangannya yang juga terbatas.

Pada beberapa implementasi ruangan server yang sudah ada, maka beberapa hal yang perlu diketahui pada ruang server adalah:

1. Suhu 

Terlalu rendah berarti boros biaya, terlalu tinggi maka komponen cepat rusak yang paling terpengaruh oleh suhu tinggi adalah "HARDISK".

Posisi pengukuran suhu sangat menentukan validitas data suhu ruang sebaiknya 20-25C ;untuk harddisk, sedangkan utilitas SMART bisa dipakai; sebaiknya kurang dari 50C untuk prosesor, utilitas lm-sensors (yang juga bisa mengukur tegangan dari power supply dan kecepatan putaran kipas. Kalau diukurnya diluar chasing, maka data tersebut sangat boleh jadi tidak mencerminkan kondisi suhu komponen sebenarnya.

Yang sering terjadi adalah adalah kalau ternyata suhu pada komponen terlalu tinggi, kadang tidak teratasi dengan cara menurunkan suhu AC di ruangan saja, melainkan perlu kipas tambahan sehingga volume udara dingin yang lewat ke suatu chasing lebih banyak.





2. Kelembaban
 
Terlalu lembab bisa merusak ketika terjadi pengembunan, dan jika terlalu kering juga berbahaya karena akan ada listrik statis; inilah sebabnya AC untuk ruang server khusus karena mengatur suhu sekaligus kelembaban udara.

Kelembaban ruang sebaiknya 40%-55%, walaupun kelihatannya mulai diperlunak batasnya karena faktor penghematan energi.




3. Kebersihan
 volume udara yang lewat casing sangat besar, kotoran yang lewat seringkali menempel di lubang saringan dan di fan; apabila terlalu banyak kotoran, aliran udara terganggu dan pendinginan tidak efekti. Hal ini juga merupakan salah satu faktor penyebab overheating pada perangkat/komponen server.

Kesimpulan :
Berapa suhu yang benar dan direkomendasikan?

Read more: TambelanBlog: Berapakah standar suhu normal didalam ruang server, suhu minimum atau maximum? http://www.tambelanblog.com/2009/10/berapakah-standar-suhu-normal-didalam.html#ixzz2gwPSC1A3 
Under Creative Commons License: Attribution Non-Commercial

Friday, August 2, 2013

10 cara untuk membuat digital magazine


The top 10 ways to create digital magazines

The top 10 ways to createdigital magazines

With the growing number of smartphones, tablets, and eReaders, why limit your audience? Create content that works for everyone, no matter what technology they prefer. Martha Rotter, co-founder of Woop.ie, reviews 10 of the best tools

Let me guess. You have a huge team of highly skilled designers and developers who use your unlimited budget to publish your beautiful, well-written content regularly for every type of device. Each device is then tested it to make sure it's an intuitive and readable experience for your loyal customers.
Probably not reality for most of us.
The great news is that digital subscriptions are growing and people are buying devices to read more content. It's an exciting time for digital publications, and marketplaces like Apple's Newsstand are helping consumers to find more of what they like and subscribe easily.
But here's the problem: device versions, hardware capabilities, operating systems, memory specifications and everything else are changing every day. So is the amount of content people read and interact with. Publishers need to be able to reach as broad an audience as they can while still maintaining a sane workflow and budget. How is this possible?
New tools for website owners, content managers, and publishers are growing, too. Below you'll find reviews of 10 methods of getting your content to a wider audience. I've included pros and cons for each tool as well as sample sites so you can see their end result in action. Some require a seasoned developer while others are more plug-n-play. Whatever your scenario, there is definitely something there to meet your needs and build your audience.
Everything I mention below can help to create content that works in more than one place. I specifically did not include products that create only PDF documents or only Flash applications or publish only to the iPad, for example.

1. Google Currents

Google Currents is about as drag-and-drop as they come. The self-service platform for publishers allows you to create different sections of your publication and view it in a simulator for Android, tablet, iPad or iPhone. You can import articles from Google Docs, upload media, or create sections from an RSS feed or a Google+ page. As long as you go in knowing that the end product will look similar to many news aggregators apps and you're okay with that, you'll like the Contents magazines.

Pros

If you're starting from scratch and have no budget, this is probably a great place to start.
The built-in simulators provide nice instant feedback on the look-and-feel you're creating.

Cons

I found the system unintuitive. Often, sections I created worked in some output formats and not others, and it was occasionally tricky to debug. If you have a designer, it may drive them crazy. You don't have a lot of control over the output, theme or styling of the magazine.

Example

GoodGood uses the Google Currents basic grid layout to break up its magazine into sections such as 'News', 'Business' and 'Design.' The sections themselves are similar to a Flipboard-style layout with swiping gestures to paginate.

2. Treesaver

Treesaver is a JavaScript framework which helps to create paginated, magazine-style layouts using HTML5 and CSS3. Navigating a Treesaver magazine is intuitive and the dynamic layouts reflow to fit any size screen.

Pros

Treesaver is probably the best format here for content you read on a crowded commuter train. The quick, intuitive swipe to change pages is much easier than scrolling and trying to keep your place. Just "swish" and you can quickly read through articles.
Treesaver's responsive image framework ensures that the device downloads an image of appropriate dimensions. This is cool because the images don't have to be the same, which could be very powerful for advertisers.

Cons

Treesaver doesn't have a single, formal content management system associated with it, so it may be time-consuming to either build the content by hand or to create a system to generate Treesaver-formatted content. There's a plug-in for Expression Engine (EESaver) and one for Django (DjTreesaver), and there are also templates and boilerplates.

Example

The Sporting NewsThe Sporting News created their digital edition with Treesaver and it works great as an iPad app as well as in a desktop browser.

3. The Baker framework

Baker is an HTML5 ebook framework for publishing interactive books and magazines which uses open web standards. You create your book as a collection of HTML, CSS, JS and image files. Then to create an iOS app, drop them into a folder with a customised book.json manifest and build using the Baker Xcode project. The best source of features and bugs are on the Github page, this will give you an idea of what is supported and what to avoid.

Pros

There are several Baker-created books and magazines in the App Store already so the framework is working for many people.
Support for Apple's Newsstand is built into the latest version of Baker, so your content can be in Newsstand by default if you choose.

Cons

While there is a sample set of HTML book files to download on Github, there isn't much guidance in terms of what you can or should do to make the most of the platform.

Example

Baker Showcase: Baker keeps an updated list of books and magazines created with their framework. The best way to get a feel for them is to download a few and take a look. While you can use their HTML5 sample book as a template for HTML5 books, Baker focuses on books for iOS devices.

4. The Laker Compendium

The Laker Compendium is built on top of The Baker Framework, but it focuses more on the HTML5 aspect of digital publications versus Baker, which focuses more on iOS publications. Laker is a set of files, design guidelines, and styles to make a publication in HTML5 which can also be converted to an iOS app. It takes advantage of things such as the Less Framework, jQuery and jPlayer as well to enhance the design and interaction components of its creations.

Pros

The Laker website has excellent detail on its features and components, so you can very quickly see what pieces are available and how to use them.

Cons

In order to best take advantage of Laker, you need to be very comfortable with things such as Less and jQuery. If you are familiar with them, you can create beautiful designs, but if not your publications may be a bit limited.

Example

Laker ShowcaseLaker's showcase includes both magazines and books downloadable in the App Store. Automotive Agenda, created by the author of The Laker Compendium, gives a beautiful overview of what Laker Compendium publications are capable of doing.

5. Kindle Publishing for Periodicals

Kindle Publishing for Periodicals is currently in beta. However this system is easy to use and turns your content into a .mobi version which you can offer for free on your own site or sell via the Amazon marketplace. Many popular eReaders are able to read the .mobi format as well.

Pros

The ready-made revenue stream certainly helps to make it easier to sell your content.

Cons

The formatting allowed by Kindle at the moment is a bit restricted, so you may have to try several versions of your content before you're happy with the look and feel of it.

Example

The Washington Post for Kindle: A monthly Kindle subscription to the Washington Postcosts $11.99 and includes a free, two-week trial. Issues are delivered wirelessly to your Kindle daily, and it supports all devices in the Kindle family with the exception of the Kindle Cloud Reader.

6. Adobe Digital Publishing Suite

While Adobe Digital Publishing Suite is currently focused on creating interactive digital reading experiences for tablet devices, they are showing signs of expanding into a more HTML5 and cross-platform production workflow for devices. The system currently consists of hosted services and viewer technology. It's used by publishers relying a great deal on InDesign as it saves integration time. However, they very recently announced their plans to upgrade their current system to allow for liquid layouts via HTML5. This would give publishers the opportunity to publish for multiple platforms including various sizes of mobile devices.

Pros

Very little workflow change for people familiar with the Adobe products already.

Cons

At the moment the output formats are tablet only: iPad and Android.

Example

Adobe Publishing GalleryAdobe's Publishing Gallery features a variety of publications you can download now for iPad and Android tablets, including travel guides and magazines from all over the world.

7. WordPress

WordPress is the CMS for many online publications, such as Contents magazine and the Bangor Daily News. WordPress is a nice way to allow multiple authors to add content themselves to a publication while giving the publisher a lot of opportunity to customise the look and feel. The Bangor Daily News have built a very interesting system which also allows them to publish from Google Docs to WordPress and then on to Adobe InDesign for their print edition.

Pros

The community around WordPress is large, so chances are high that the plug-ins you require for things such as membership, limited content for non-subscribers and mobile formatting, already exist.

Cons

WordPress is essentially a blogging engine. So if you're looking for something to publish content daily or weekly it might be a good fit. However, if you're looking for a more packaged publication feel, like a monthly magazine with a start and a finish, it will likely require customisation.

Example

Contents Magazine: Contents was started in November 2011 and is devoted to content strategy, online publishing and new-school editorial work.

8. Magaka

Magaka is an HTML magazine framework that works across many devices and browsers. However, its format is very different to a lot of the other systems discussed in this article. Magaka works by loading an HTML file which loads the Magaka framework and then pulls the magazine data from a JSON structure. This includes the metadata, title, table of contents, and everything in between. In fact, you can even specify multiple versions of your publication in that structure and show the correct one based on the device's screen size, orientation, and device features.

Pros

The sample magazine has several unique and interesting interactive components such as drawing, which makes it fun to read.

Cons

For someone who is not familiar or comfortable with JSON and JavaScript, Magaka may feel overly complex at first.

Example

Magaka Sample Magazine: The Sample Magazine provided by Magaka is interesting mostly because of its interactivity. You can draw yourself in the magazine, for example, explore various navigation options, look at experimental advertisements, and try reading both horizontally and vertically. This may not be the most beautiful magazine, but it certainly provides an engaging experience.

9. Design your own magazine

If you're comfortable designing and creating HTML, why not try making your own from scratch? For small publications with the in-house expertise, HTML is a flexible canvas. Grid systems such as 960, Blueprint and the Golden Grid System are all good systems to help provide a basic structure for your design. Having no templates is exciting for some people and terrifyingly vague for others. But if you want to be able to achieve a lot of creativity and don't like the feeling of being boxed in by a framework, perhaps designing each page from scratch is a good fit for you.

Pros

With no restrictions, you are definitely not trying to shoehorn your design into a badly-fitting framework.

Cons

The lack of structure can be a bit too open for some people to deal with.
This only works for a team with excellent HTML and CSS skills, and it can be very time-consuming.

Example

FrayFray has been around in some form since 1996. It's now a series of independently
produced books, each focused on a central storytelling theme. You can buy their issues
on the site, subscribe, or view the HTML versions. The articles are in straightforward
HTML and scroll vertically, each accompanied by custom artwork.

10. Facebook

In the last few months we've seen an increase in publishers using Facebook to distribute their content. The Guardian and the Wall Street Journal, for example, have created Facebook apps which work by publishing stories to Facebook and letting readers comment and interact with the stories inside Facebook.

Pros

Facebook provides a ready-made audience, so the potential to discover new customers and readers is big.

Cons

Apps with a lot of reading material have a tendency to overshare and annoy readers' friends who may mute or hide the activity.

Example

The Wall Street Journal Social provides its articles for free via Facebook and shares them on users' walls by default. For people who spend a lot of time each day in Facebook, this seems like a good way to publish and distribute news and articles.

Conclusion

What's next? It's an as yet unanswered question. There aren't clear answers to problems such as scrolling versus pagination. Intuitive gestures and user interface guidelines vary from device to device. People are excited about interactive content for education, but how clear is it that it is more effective or increases comprehension? There is still a lot to research and discover, which is why this is such a fascinating area at the moment. But to read more from people who are thinking a lot about this area, check out some of the following influential writers and speakers on digital publications and reading experiences.
Also take a look at these annual events: